(Read 15/05/2017 to 17/07/2017)
I started this book because I had realised whilst reading numerous news articles and editorials that I didn’t know very much regarding the territory or how terrorist organisations started in the Middle East and North Africa. As my first book to introduce myself to the topic, the Looming Tower seemed like a good start as it had won the Pulitzer Prize in 2007. This decision was vindicated as the book turned out to be both informative and a throughly engaging read from start to finish.
The first section details Sayyid Qutb and the influence his writings would have later on. This section outlines the situation in Egypt at the time and how it was reaching turmoil. This eventually led to the emergence of the Muslim Brotherhood. It then explains how afterwards al-Zawahiri was imprisoned and how these prisons became a breeding ground for the seeds of 9/11. The prisoners held the west reponsible and whilst imprisoned became attracted to militancy.
The next section describes the relationship between the Bin-Laden family and the Saudi royal family. This relationship was forged initially through Mohammed Bin Laden (Osama’s father) who owned a construction company. He was initially awarded a contract by the Saudi king to build new royal palaces and by completing these contracts, Bin Laden Kaiser construction company became one of the world’s largest. After numerous contracts he received another to renovate the Grand Mosque in Mecca – the most prestigious construction contract in the royal kingdom. When Prince Faisal took over in 1958, there was less than $100 in the treasury! Mohammed bailed them out personally, a gesture which sealed the ties between the Bin Laden family and the Saudi royal family.
Osama was religious from the start. A turning point in his early life was when Soviet troops entered Afghanistan. He had an apartment in Afghanistan and he put up people in his apartment and ran special military camps. The Saudi government funded Bin Laden’s campaign there. As the tide began to turn, they began to see jihad as an ongoing battle. Zawahiri and Bin Laden met and each was pulled in a direction they never intended to go towards. Eventually both of them would create Al-Qaeda, a vector of Egyptian and Saudi forces and they would lead a global jihad. From the beginning of its creation it was an attractive employment opportunity for many and this his how they gained many followers early on. It began as a critique of the West, particularly the U.S. for the plight of the Arab world. Later when the U.S. helped to kick Iraqi forces out of Saudi, Osama saw their ongoing presence there as a crusade.
The book then switches to the FBI. It begins by telling the story of John O’Neill. He was one of the first to notice Bin Laden and consider him a threat. However he became so obsessed with Bin Laden that his colleagues began to question his judgement. This section also introduced the problems of co-operation between the FBI and CIA. The two units would keep information from each other which would be detrimental in the long run for both organisations and the U.S. when it hampered the response to al-Qaeda.
Then Bin Laden issued a war on America. Their first terrorist attack was in Kenya on an embassy. This attack caused horror around the world to Muslims around the world with the deaths of so many innocent Africans, especially Muslims.
The events right up to 9/11 once again illustrated the lack of co-operation between the CIA and the FBI and how this was ultimately one of their downfalls. I would strongly recommend this book to those who are interested in reading about political tensions throughout the Middle East but like me aren’t too aware of the formation and history of some of the biggest groups and events. The book is extremely detailed and well-paced, providing a solid history and background without becoming tedious. The rest of the book reads like a crime novel, with intricate interwoven stories and events leading to the culmination of 9/11.